0-9   A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Apparent recovery

Fraction of an applied nutrient (kg per kg) recovered in above ground or harvested crop parts in addition to the amount of that nutrient taken up in an unfertilized control.


Underground reserve of freshwater usually contained in a discrete layer of water-permeable rock or other material (such as gravel, sand etc.) from which water can be extracted using a well or other appropriate extraction technology.

Arable land

Agricultural land that is cultivated by ploughing, usually to 20 or 30 cm depth. More than 30 cm represents deep ploughing.

Arbuscular mycorrhizae

The group of endomycorrhizal fungi important in non-woody plants, including many agricultural crops. Sometimes called vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM).


Invertebrate animals with jointed legs. They include insects, crustaceans, sowbugs, springtails, arachnids (spiders), and others.

Aspect, exposure

Compass orientation of a slope.

Assessing soil health

Estimating the functional capacity of soil by comparing a soil to a standard such as an ecological site description, a similar soil under native vegetation, a reference soil condition, or quality criteria. The objective of the assessment dictates the standard to be used. (Compare to monitoring.)


A characteristic of the soil system contributing to the generation of a soil function. One attribute can contribute to more soil functions. Attributes can be quantified with indicators A concrete aspect of the system (in the case of the LANDMARK project: plausibly linked to a soil function) for which indicators can be envisaged. Soil pH, NO3-transport to groundwater, NH3-release, water infiltration rate, soil respiration, crop management, pedo-climatic zone, and land use are examples of attributes which are relevant for the LANDMARK project.

Attributes of soil change

Quantifiable properties used to describe the nature of soil change, including drivers, types, rates, reversibility, and pathways of change.

Available soil water

Total amount of water in the root zone that is available for evapotranspiration, usually expressed in mm.

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