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Any organic product generated during the production, processing or consumption of crops, ranging from roots, stubbles, straw and leaves, to industrial and urban


The ability of an ecosystem to maintain diversity, integrity and ecological processes following disturbance (i.e. by returning to its initial state after stress).


The ability of an ecosystem to withstand a stress or perturbation without adverse changes to its structure or function, thereby maintaining an equilibrium state.

Resource efficiency

Resource efficiency means using the Earth's limited resources in a sustainable manner while minimising impacts on the environment. It allows us to create more with less and to deliver greater value with less input. (

Resource use efficiency

See Resource efficiency.


Root-like structure of lichen and other organisms.


Root-like structure of mosses and ferns used to attach to a substrate.


The narrow region around roots where most soil biological activity occurs. Soil organisms take advantage of the sloughed and dead root cells and the root exudates found in this region.

Root exudates

Substances released from plant root system in drops or small quantities of carbohydrates, organic acids, vitamins and many other substances essential for life of soil micro-organisms.

Root mass

The amount of roots

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