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Leaving organic residues (or plastic sheet) on top of the soil or in the first few cm of soil.

Multi-actor approach

The multi?actor approach aims at more demand-driven innovation through the genuine and sufficient involvement of various actors (end-users such as farmers/farmers' groups, fishers/fisher's groups, advisors, enterprises, etc.) all along the project: from the participation in the planning of work and experiments, their execution up until the dissemination of results and the possible demonstration phase.

Munsell Color System

Colour designation system that specifies the relative degrees of the three simple variables of colour: hue (wavelength), value (degree of lightness or darkness), and chroma (purity or strength). For example: 10YR 6/4 is a colour (of soil) with a hue = 10YR, value = 6, and chroma = 4.


Two species that have evolved together into a mutually beneficial relationship. For example, mycorrhizal fungi get carbon compounds from plant roots and help deliver water and nutrients to the root.


A bundle of fungal hyphae that form the vegetative body of many fungal organisms.

Mycorrhizal associations

A symbiotic association of certain fungi with roots. The fungi receive energy and nutrients from the plant. The plant receives improved access to water and some nutrients. Except for brassicas (mustard, broccoli, canola) and chenopods (beets, lamb

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