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Process through which a waterbody, such as a lake or a soil solution, becomes enriched with dissolved nutrients, primarily nitroegn and phosphorus. This can be natural, but is often due to pollution. Eutrophication may result in algal blooms which can remove oxygen in the water, harming fish life.


The rate of water loss from liquid to vapour (gaseous) state from an open water, wet soil or plant surface, usually expressed in mm day-1.


The process by which water passes from a liquid to a vapour (gaseous) state through transpiration from vegetation, and evaporation from soil and plant surfaces. The rate of evapotranspiration is usually expressed in mm day-1; a distinction can be made between the potential evapotranspiration under unlimited availability of water and the actual evapotranspiration under limited availability.


The gradual depletion of reserves of nutrients and organic matter in soils.


The process of decreasing the use of capital and inputs (e.g. fertilizers, pesticides, machinery, energy) relative to land area. Due to a decrease in inputs per land area the pressure on the environment may be decreased. A decrease in pesticides used, for instance, is likely to decrease the risk of pesticide run-off in surface and groundwater (


Soluble sugars, amino acids and other compounds secreted by roots.

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