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Effective rooting depth

The soil depth from which a fully grown plant can easily extract most of the water needed for transpiration. It can be limited by physical (e.g. cemented pan) or chemical (e.g. saline horizon) properties.


The ability to get a job done satisfactorily (often under controlled conditions). Efficacy does not imply effectiveness.


The ability to do things well, successfully, and without waste (doing the things right); often expressed as the ratio of the output to the inputs of any system.


European Innovation Partnership.

Electrical conductivity (EC)

Measure of a material's ability to accommodate the transport of an electric charge and used as a measure of the salinity of the soil, and to estimate practical consequences for crops. EC of a soil suspension at a given soil to water ratio (usually 1:5 or saturated extract as a proxy to soil solution), expressed as deciSiemens per m (at 25 degrees Celsius).

Emergent properties

Properties of a whole system that are not apparent from examining properties of the components of the system.

Endomycorrhizal fungi

A type of mycorrhizal fungi that invades the cells of plant roots.

Environmental impact

The effects agricultural production has on the environment (e.g., leaching, greenhouse gas emission, soil degradation, human health, biodoiversity, etc.).


The wearing away of the land surface by water, wind, ice, gravity or other natural or anthropogenic agents that abrade, detach and remove soil particles or rock material from one point on the earth's surface, for deposition elsewhere, including gravitational creep and so-called tillage erosion.


Exchangeable Sodium Percentage (%).

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